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Controls were frequency selected to cases on calendar year of birth (±5 years), gender, race, and ethnicity.
Each cohort may have been matched additionally on other relevant factors such as age at baseline or age at blood draw (±5 years), date/time of blood draw, fasting blood draw, and length of follow-up (Table 1).
Controls were incidence density sampled with a 1-to-1 control-to-case ratio and were alive and free from pancreatic cancer on the date the matched case was diagnosed.Risk more than 15 years after smoking cessation was similar to that for never smokers.Estimates of excess odds ratio per pack-year declined with increasing intensity, suggesting greater risk for total exposure delivered at lower intensity for longer duration than for higher intensity for shorter duration.Cigarette smoking may be responsible for approximately 20% of pancreatic cancer cases (12).A recent meta-analysis indicated that current cigarette smokers, compared with never smokers, have about a 2-fold risk of pancreatic cancer and that the risk increases incrementally with the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of smoking (12).
The Special Studies Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Institute approved the pooled Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium study.