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This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in 1978. They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European (PIE) root g It appears in Modern French in the word genre (type, kind, also genre sexuel) and is related to the Greek root gen- (to produce), appearing in gene, genesis, and oxygen.The modern English word gender comes from the Middle English gender, gendre, a loanword from Anglo-Norman and Middle French gendre. The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED1, Volume 4, 1900) notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had already become obsolete.While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and gender studies particularly do, research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity.In the English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role.Julie Greenberg writes that although gender and sex are separate concepts, they are interlinked in that gender discrimination often results from stereotypes based on what is expected of members of each sex.The word ‘gender’ has acquired the new and useful connotation of cultural or attitudinal characteristics (as opposed to physical characteristics) distinctive to the sexes.
Globally, communities interpret biological differences between men and women to create a set of social expectations that define the behaviors that are "appropriate" for men and women and determine women’s and men’s different access to rights, resources, power in society and health behaviors.That is to say, gender is to sex as feminine is to female and masculine is to male.Gender identity refers to a personal identification with a particular gender and gender role in society.Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the concept of a distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender.
Today the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences Later, in 2011, the FDA reversed its position and began using sex as the biological classification and gender as "a person's self representation as male or female, or how that person is responded to by social institutions based on the individual's gender presentation." The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies.