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bibliae) in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Kitvei hakkodesh), and Christians now commonly call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" (in Greek and is now usually cited by book, chapter, and verse.
byblos, "Egyptian papyrus", possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos (also known as Gebal) from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions.
He leads the Children of Israel from slavery in Ancient Egypt to the renewal of their covenant with God at Mount Sinai and their wanderings in the desert until a new generation was ready to enter the land of Canaan. The Torah contains the commandments of God, revealed at Mount Sinai (although there is some debate among traditional scholars as to whether these were all written down at one time, or over a period of time during the 40 years of the wanderings in the desert, while several modern Jewish movements reject the idea of a literal revelation, and critical scholars believe that many of these laws developed later in Jewish history)., the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel and the Twelve Minor Prophets).
The Nevi'im tell the story of the rise of the Hebrew monarchy and its division into two kingdoms, ancient Israel and Judah, focusing on conflicts between the Israelites and other nations, and conflicts among Israelites, specifically, struggles between believers in "the L in which prophets played a crucial and leading role.
The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, and it is known as the Codex Vaticanus.
The oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE.
Attitudes towards the Bible also differ amongst Christian groups.The collection is broken up to form twelve individual books in the Christian Old Testament, one for each of the prophets: "writings") is the third and final section of the Tanakh.The Ketuvim are believed to have been written under the Ruach Ha Kodesh (the Holy Spirit) but with one level less authority than that of prophecy.It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt.The remaining four books of the Torah tell the story of Moses, who lived hundreds of years after the patriarchs.
This means that there was little time for oral traditions to assume fixed form.